Saturday, May 23, 2020

Potrayal of Women in The Ancient World, The Middle Ages,...

Throughout the three literary periods: The Ancient World, The Middle Ages, and The Renaissance; women have been portrayed and treated in different ways. The Iliad by Homer is about the Trojan War fought by the Achaeans and Trojans which was over the capturing of the wife of King Menelaus, Helen of Troy, by Paris. In The Canterbury Tales by Chaucer, it is about a group of 29 people who are all on a pilgrimage to Canterbury to worship St. Thomas’s shrine; however, as Chaucer describes all these types of people not many of them are very religious and the stories they tell show the perspective and portrayal of women in this time. In Francis Petrarch’s poetry Rhymes, he describes his love and admiration for a woman who doesn’t love him back, yet Petrarch still confesses his love for her through his poetry. Through these stories and poems, The Iliad, The Canterbury Tales, and Rhymes, from the three time periods, the role of women is a progression of how they were looke d at and their role in that time period, by men. In The Iliad by Homer women in the Ancient World period were seen as possessions and property of men and consequently they were inferior to men. The Iliad begins in the 10th year of the war and starts off with Achilles and Agamemnon fighting over their war prizes, Chryseis and Brieseis. Chryseis’s father, priest of Apollo, asked Menelaus for his daughter back or he would pray to Apollo to send a plague to the Greek camp. Menelaus finally gives Chryseis back because

Monday, May 18, 2020

The Effects of Eurpoeans on Native Americans - 576 Words

Effects of European settler on Native Americans The Europeans eventually came to dominate the land once held by the Native Americans through theft, disease and converting the natives to Christianity. First many times the Europeans had their own best interest in mind when they went to meet the natives. The Europeans such as Cortes had heard stories of gold and wanted to take the gold for themselves. He told the Aztec Chief Montezuma the amazingly ridiculous lie that the Spanish had â€Å"a strange disease of the heart for which the only known remedy is gold† (Kennedy and Cohen) Worse yet for the Aztecs who believed the Spanish conquistadors were the god Quetzalcoatl and thus allowed entry into the city. This gave up the intelligence of what the city had; it gave the Spanish the knowledge of how to defeat the city. Shortly later Cortes conquered the Aztec capital. However, Cortez was far from the only European who was attempting to take advantage of the wealthy natural resources of the new world. Juan Ponce De Leon sea rched for gold in Florida. Francisco Coronado explored the southern plains in his search for gold abusing Native Americans along the way by placing iron collars on them and harassed his captives with vicious dogs. Francisco Pizarro conquered the Incan empire in Peru and took a huge load of silver for Spain. Later the silver taken from the mines in Bolivia and Mexico resulted in a silver price revolution in Europe. The Europeans also captured natives andShow MoreRelatedObjectives Of European Colonization1189 Words   |  5 Pagescolonization? The start of the European colonization of the Americas is typically dated to 1492. Some of their objectives included early conquests, claims, and colonies, early state-sponsored colonists, economic immigrants, religious immigration. Most American school children learn to recite this little phrase: In 1492, Columbus sailed the ocean blue. Columbus, in fact, was just one of many explorers sponsored by European monarchs in the 1400s who were all trying to find a better, cheaper, faster route

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

The Controversy Of Eugenics And Genetic Engineering

Throughout history, mankind has sought to understand itself. We question why we exist and what our role in the universe is, even though we may never receive an answer. One of these problems that humanity has yet to fully understand is evolution, which is the process of a species undergoing changes that suit their environment through multiple generations. However, in the last 150 years, humanity has made great strides in the science of genetics. In that time, there have been some subjects that have been highly controversial: eugenics and genetic engineering. The history of these topics is colored with ethical and moral quandaries that have been topics for fierce debates since the early 1900s, and they continue to this day. Eugenics was†¦show more content†¦Many of these countries, even the United States, adopted eugenic practices. One such practice was sterilizing those deemed â€Å"mentally unfit† to reproduce, attempting to eliminate mental disabilities as a result. However, these practices fell out of favor with the public due to the rise of Nazism and the atrocities of the Holocaust, where eugenics was used to a radical extreme. It wouldn’t be long, however, for genetics to return to the forefront of scientific research, thanks to the discovery of DNA’s helical structure by James Watson and Francis Crick in 1953 (Pray). This discovery would later lead Watson to assume the first director position for the Human Genome Project, an ambitious international research project started in 1990 that sought to map out the entire human genome, until his departure in 1992 (â€Å"A Brief History†). This thirteen-year project ended in the successful mapping of the underestimated 20,500 genes that make up a human’s genome and â€Å"has given the world a resource of detailed information about the structure, organization and function of the complete set of human genes† (â€Å"An Overview†). In modern times, eugenics ha s evolved into genetic engineering, and it is still as controversial a topic as it was in the 1940s. But why is that so? Surely if the option to change a negative trait about someone existed, such as eliminating a genetic disease like Huntington’s Disease, why would someone want to oppose that? MyShow MoreRelatedGenetic Modification Is The New Eugenics1441 Words   |  6 PagesHunan Genetic Modification is the New Eugenics The science of eugenics was widely used during the 20th century in the United States to strategically eliminate the reproductive rights of women who were deemed inferior on the social ladder (â€Å"What is Eugenics?†). Some women of color, women with disabilities, and women from lower financial classes were sterilized for permanent birth control, and sometimes without their consent or knowledge (â€Å"What is Eugenics?†). The eugenics movement was aimed to promoteRead MoreThe Science Of Eugenics Movement1423 Words   |  6 PagesThe science of eugenics was widely used during the 20th century in the United States to strategically eliminate the reproductive rights of women who were deemed inferior on the social ladder (â€Å"What is Eugenics?†). Some women of color, women with disabilities, and women from lower financial classes were sterilized for permanent birth control, and sometimes without their consent or knowledge (â€Å"What is Eugenics?†). The eug enics movement was aimed to promote selective human features in order to increaseRead MoreThe Controversies Of Gene Therapy1729 Words   |  7 PagesThe Controversies of Gene Therapy Demolishing genetic diseases from the human race has been and always will be a key role in science. However, there comes a point in time when moral standards have interjected the betterment of cleansing genetic diseases. One of the many branches of science that has the complete capability to exterminate our destiny of any genetic diseases, gene therapy, is being silenced due to the curse of society’s moral standards. There is a very narrow line in what is not morallyRead MoreAnalysis of the Bioethical Issues in Gattaca Essay836 Words   |  4 Pagescontroversial issue in Gattaca is the use of genetic engineering technology in humans to create a more perfect society; this is, essentially, a new method of Eugenics. Another related issue seen in the movie is that of pre-natal selection. Through the use of the same or similar technologies, parents are able to choose the characteristics with which their children will be born. The controversy of these issues stems from the immense potential in genetic sciences for both positive use and harmful misuseRead MoreEugenics: Improving The Human Race? Essay1128 Words   |  5 Pagesoffspring is called eugenics. It is better understood as the process of selective breeding can improve human society. The term eugenics is from the greek, meaning â€Å"well-born†. The idea of eugenics is to have a society be abundant with many wanted traits, during a movement called the melting pot where people tried to solve their problems with the use of technology. Inquiries into Human Faculty and Its Development, is the book in which Sir Francis Galton first mentioned the term eugenics. In the book heRead MoreEssay about The Ethical Controversy of Gene Therapy 1590 Words   |  7 Pagesunpredictable technology. The major ethical controversy is whether to alter the natural human genetic structure. Many researchers were successful in curing both the genetic and non-genetic diseases by altering the somatic cells of the individual. It has been accepted as a good practice. The main reason is only the individual in question receives the altered somatic cells but it will not pass to his off-spring. Thus it doesn’t change the original genetic structure of that individual. Public debateRead MoreThe Ethical Debate Surrounding Eugenics2159 Words   |  9 PagesAbstract The term and concept of Eugenics was introduced into our society dating back to the year 1883, by Francis Galton, cousin of Darwin (Harvard Law Review, 2004). Since that year, throughout history and into our current time the study and debate surrounding Eugenics has taken many forms, but controversy as society developed a better understanding of its concept, has grown in epic proportions. Today we are subjected to constant debates of the pros and cons of Eugenics and its study and use in healthcareRead MoreGenetic Engineering1896 Words   |  8 PagesThrough the exploration of these inherited materials, scientists have ventured into the recent, and rather controversial, field of genetic engineering. It is described as the artificial modification of the genetic code of a living organism, and involves the manipulation and alteration of inborn characteristics by humans (Lanza). Like many other issues, genetic engineering has sparked a heated debate. Some people believe that it has th e potential to become the new miracle tool of medicine. To othersRead More`` Let s Play God ! Gene Drives Could Be A Powerful New Tool892 Words   |  4 PagesGenetic engineering is a powerful tool that can be used to accomplish a multitude of tasks. From species population control to ensuring certain traits in a human baby, there isn’t a lot that genetic engineering can’t do. It is becoming more and more acceptable to genetically engineer organisms as our knowledge on the subject grows. There have been experiments manipulating entire ecosystems by introducing a genetically modified organism into it. It’s even possible to change tiny details allRead MoreThe Human Genome Project Led By James Watson1308 Words   |  6 Pagespeople in our lives die from hereditary diseases and our genetic makeup is almost completely responsible for the traits we are born with and unfortunately stuck with. However the genes and genetic predispositions responsible for these c ommon and rare hereditary diseases have been identified, which allows diagnosis of these diseases in prenatal stages. What if we as humans could choose to improve ourselves and our offspring by a series of genetic testing and germline gene therapy to produce a genetically

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Tell Tale Heart And The Cask Of Amontillado - 1153 Words

Recently, I have read two short stories: The Tell-Tale Heart and the Cask of Amontillado, both by Edgar Allan Poe. I am going to compare and contrast these 2 stories by showing you how different yet similar they are. I believe that if you dig down deep enough you will find that even if you didn t know that they were both written by Edgar Allan Poe, you would have been able to guess it. He has a distinct style of writing. Many, if not all, of his short stories have unwelcoming endings and a sort of dark glamour. Edgar Allan Poe was born in Boston, Massachusetts on January 19, 1809. The Tell-Tale Heart is in 1st person, told by an unnamed narrator. The story is about the narrator who takes care of this old man (also unnamed) who†¦show more content†¦When they ask about the old man, the narrator tells the police that the old man is visiting a friend in the country. After he gave the policemen a tour of the house, they sat down and had a nice, long conversation. The narrator sa id, My easy, quiet manner made the policemen believe my story. At the end of the story, the narrator expresses his discomfort. Then he hears it: the beating of the old man s heart. Still, the policemen continue to chat until the sound of the old man s heartbeat drives the narrator mad. The last lines of the story read, Suddenly I could bear it no longer. I pointed at the boards and cried, â€Å"Yes! Yes, I killed him. Pull up the boards and you shall see! I killed him. But why does his heart not stop beating?! Why does it not stop!?†. Now, the next story is called, The Cask of Amontillado. It is in 1st person, told by one of the main characters named Montresor. Montresor had a big grudge against this man named Fortunato. The story does not clarify what Fortunato did to piss Montresor off, all we know is that he really hates this Fortunato guy. So, naturally Montresor wanted revenge. And I don t mean a I-put-ranch-in-his-shampoo-bottle kind of revenge. I m talkin about revenge-revenge, as in murder. Montresor then decides to use Fortunato s love of wine to trick him. Luckily for him, he finds Fortunato alone and greets him like they ve been best friends their wholeShow MoreRelatedThe Cask Of Amontillado And The Tell Tale Heart1366 Words   |  6 Pagescan be seen in his two short stories â€Å"The Cask of Amontillado† and â€Å"The Tell-Tale-Heart†. Both of these stories are written in first person and ends with their victim s death. These stories contain many similarities and differences i n term of the characters, theme, mood, irony, setting, confession, and the reason for committing murder. Both of these tales have a narrator that gave ambiguous and shallow reason for their murders. In the Tell-Tale-Heart, it is the old man s â€Å"eye of vulture† (1)Read MoreThe Cask Of Amontillado And The Tell Tale Heart Analysis1052 Words   |  5 Pages Edgar Allan Poe is a prominent writer who wrote many peculiar and uncanny short stories and poems. One of the stories Poe wrote, â€Å"The Tell Tale Heart,† published in 1843, is about a narrator who is paranoid about an old man’s eye, so he decides to eradicate it. Another story by Poe, â€Å"The Cask of Amontillado,† published in 1846, is about a narrator who seeks revenge on his friend because, in the past, he was insulted by him. Both stories contain narrators, which are mentally unstable, but the narrator’sRead MoreThe Cask Of Amontillado, The Raven And The Tell Tale Heart1613 Words   |  7 Pagespicks words to strike horror and dread. Through his writing, Poe has become one who will never be forgotten. He will always be remembered as one of the pivotal writers in the romantic period of writing. In his works â€Å"The Cask of Amontillado†, â€Å"The Raven†, and â€Å"The Tell-Tale Heart†, he strategically describes people, event s, and places for his readers to feel the full effect and emotion he wants. To understand how Edgar Allan Poe utilized descriptive paragraphs and so carefully picked his words, weRead More Comparison Between â€Å"The Cask of Amontillado† and â€Å"The Tell-Tale Heart†2120 Words   |  9 Pageschilling literature. Two most notable thrillers are â€Å"The Cask of Amontillado† and â€Å"The Tell-Tale Heart†. Poe was infatuated with death, disfigurement, and dark characteristics of the world. He could mix characters, setting, theme,and mood in a way that readers are automatically drawn into reading. Both of these short stories have the same major aspects in common. The narrators in both works prove to be similar in several ways. In â€Å"The Tell-Tale Heart† the story is told through a psycho narrator; bothRead MoreThe Tell Tale Heart And The Cask Of Amontillado Short Story1253 Words   |  6 PagesRecently, I have read two short stories: The Tell-Tale Heart and the Cask of Amontillado, both by Edgar Allan Poe. I am going to compare and contrast these 2 stories by showing you how different yet similar they are. I believe that if you dig down deep enough you will find that even if you didnt know that they were both written by Edgar Allan Poe, you would have been able to guess it. He has a distinct style of writing. Many, if not all, of his short stories have unwelcoming endings and a sortRead MoreA Comparison of Poes A Tell Tale Heart and The Cask of Amontillado 535 Words   |  3 Pagesfor murder, the methods of murder, and the preparation for the murder. In the Tell Tale Heart there is a silly reason for murder. The man kills an old man because he has a form of cataract. He complains about his eye being milky and it being evil. The killer also seems to suffered from schizophrenia and severe OCD. In the end the killer hears the beating of the man’s heart after he is dead. In the Cask of Amontillado the killer gives the reason of murder to be an insult. Although the killer seemsRead MoreA Comparison of Poes Short Stories, The Cask of Amontillado and The Tell Tale Heart773 Words   |  4 PagesI have read both short stories by Edgar Allen Poe, ‘the Cask of Amontillado, as well as ‘the Tell Tale Heart. Between these two stories lie many similarities and few differences. For instance, both of these stories the narrator describes a murder. In the Cask, the narrator Montressor, whose sanity is questionable, describes the way he murdered his rival Fortunato. The man Fortunato, who isn’t all that fortunate in death, has insulted Montressor many times and Montressor seeks revenge for so longRead MoreEdgar Allan Poe s `` The Cask Of Amontillado `` And `` A Tell Tale Heart ``1091 Words   |  5 PagesReaders Response Edgar Allan Poe is an American writer who is famous for his tales and poems of horror, and mystery. Mr. Poe s short stories and poems captured the imagination and interest of readers around the world. His creative talents led to the beginning of different literary genres earning him the nickname Father of the Detective Story among other distinctions. His life however, has become a bit of a mystery itself, and the lines between fact and fiction have been blurred substantiallyRead More Comparing Edgar Allen Poes The Cask of Amontillado, The Black Cat, and The Tell-tale Heart752 Words   |  4 PagesComparing Edgar Allen Poes The Cask of Amontillado, The Black Cat, and The Tell-tale Heart The short stories of Edgar Allen Poe demonstrate the authors ample gifts in the psychology of the mind, regardless of the fact he was decades ahead of Freud.   Poes short stories are often from the deranged and murderous point-of-view of the narrator, who often illustrates the inner-workings of his own psychology and the disintegration of the self brought about by psychological disorders, aberrationsRead MoreRole of Realism in Edagar Allan Poe ´s The Tell Tale Heart and The Cask of Amortillado1014 Words   |  5 Pagesâ€Å"The Tell Tale Heart† and â€Å"The Cask of Amontillado† written by Edgar Allan Poe are dark short stories relevant to murder, revenge, and mystery. Poe writes both stories in a Gothic style in order to deal with ideas of realism. One may ask were the murders and punishments justifiable in either short story? One may also ask did Poe accurately depict realism in each story? Realism, defined as a technique in literature that accurately represents everyday life, is questioned in Poe’s works: â€Å"The Tell Tale

The History of Body Modification Free Essays

The History and Culture of Body Modification What is body modification and why has it had such a large impact on society? For centuries humans have been using their bodies as a canvas to identify themselves to the rest of society. Body modification lets a person stand out or blend in; it allows people to describe who they are and where they come from without saying a word. There are many forms of body modification such as Tattooing, Scarification, Piercings, Stretching, Plastic Surgery, and Corseting. We will write a custom essay sample on The History of Body Modification or any similar topic only for you Order Now Each form holds a story, a reason why it is done. In the past three decades, Western body art has not only become a practice, and in some quarters a fashion, that has crossed social boundaries of class and gender, â€Å"high† culture and â€Å"low,† but also it has been greatly influenced by â€Å"tribal† practices, past and present. † (Enid Schildkrout, Inscribing the Body, Para 10 line 8) Tattooing The history of tattooing stems back thousands of years from all over the world for all different reasons. â€Å"In terms of tattoos on actual bodies, the earliest known examples were for a long time Egyptian and were present on several female mummies dated to c. 000 B. C. But following the more recent discovery of the Iceman from the area of the Italian-Austrian border in 1991 and his tattoo patterns, this date has been pushed back a further thousand years when he was carbon-dated at around 5,200 years old. The distribution of the tattooed dots and small cros ses on his lower spine and right knee and ankle joints correspond to areas of strain-induced degeneration, with the suggestion that they may have been applied to alleviate joint pain and were therefore essentially therapeutic. This would also explain their somewhat ‘random’ distribution in areas of the body which would not have been that easy to display had they been applied as a form of status marker. † (Cate Lineberry, Tattoos -The Ancient and Mysterious History, Para 2 and 3) There is evidence that women in Ancient Egypt had tattoos on various parts of their bodies, some on their inner thighs or on their hips, these tattoos were thought to help alleviate the pain of childbirth. â€Å"Tattooing of ancient Egyptian women had a therapeutic role and functioned as a permanent form of amulet during the very difficult time of pregnancy and birth. This is supported by the pattern of distribution, largely around the abdomen, on top of the thighs and the breasts, and would also explain the specific types of designs, in particular the net-like distribution of dots applied over the abdomen. † (Cate Lineberry, Tattoos – The Ancient and Mysterious History, page 2, Para 2, line 4) Scarification Scarification is another form of putting design on the human body. Scarification also known as cicatrization changes the skins texture by cutting into the skin and then controlling how the skin heals. Many substances can be added to the cuts to turn the scars into raised bumps, or change the color of the skin. â€Å"In some cultures, a smooth, unmarked skin represents an ideal of beauty, but people in many others see smooth skin as an unfinished, unattractive surface† (American Museum of Natural History http://www. amnh. org/exhibitions/bodyart/glossary. html#totop, para 10) In South Africa the practice of Scarification has lasted centuries and the techniques used to produce the scared images have been passed from generation to generation. The custom of scarification is usually carried out by the young women of the tribe as a sign of beauty. The scar designs can be found on the chest, stomach and backs of the tribal women. The following image shows three Tembu women with decorative scarification. Piercings Body piercing is probably one of the more welcomed forms of body modification and involves piercing anything from earlobes to noses and even sexual body parts. Throughout history body piercings have been used to show status and age, and as wards and talismans. There are many different types of piercings and many different reasons each was used. Sailors would get a gold earring to help improve eyesight, Ancient Egyptian women would pierce their belly buttons to ward off demons from entering through the belly button and harming their unborn children, Roman soldiers would pierce the nipple area of their armor. In many cultures ear piercings are done to show that the recipient of the piercing has reached puberty. In Borneo the parents of the child each take turns piercing an earlobe to symbolize the child’s dependence on their parents. During the time of the Roman Empire, Roman soldiers would wear upper body armor that was shaped like a man’s chest they pierced the armor where the nipples would be and used those rings to clasp their cloaks into place. This practice lead to the belief that they would only clasp their cloaks to actual nipple rings. Women of the 14th century were known for wearing such low necklines that their nipples were often visible, women then began to pierce their nipples or use nipple caps to add decoration to their chest, sometimes fragile chains of gold, pearls, or diamonds would be linked between the piercings. These piercings were mainly worn among the upper classes of the 14th century. (http://www. painfulpleasures. com/piercing_history. htm) The Prince Albert is now as it once was, a popular male piercing, that not only enhances sexual stimulation but also allows the wearer to control where their penis lay inside the pants. â€Å"The Prince Albert piercing is named after Prince Albert who was the husband of Queen Victoria of England. He was reputed to have had this piercing done prior to his marriage to the queen around 1825, at that time Beau Brummel started the craze for ultra-tight men’s trousers. Because the pants were so tight, the penis needed to be held to one side or the other so as not to create an unsightly bulge. To accomplish this some men had their penis pierced to allow it to be held by a hook on the inside of the trousers, this piercing was called a â€Å"Dressing Ring† at the time because tailors would ask if a gentleman dressed to the left or the right and tailor the trousers accordingly, tailors to this day will ask if you dress to the left or right. † (http://www. ainfulpleasures. com/piercing_history. htm ) Body Modification Making the body thinner and more graceful is something many cultures do, long thin neck lines, curved shapely torso’s these are signs of beauty through the world. Throughout Europe and North America corsets have been a popular way to give a woman curves and emphasize or deemphasize parts of her body. On the Thai-Burmese border tribal women wear heavy brass neck rings to elongate their necks as a symbol of beauty. Women of the Karen tribe wear heavy brass neck rings that give the appearance of long necklines. This particular form of body modification has likely been a Kayan tradition for over a thousand years. The primary reasons for wearing them now are for beauty and to preserve their culture while they are in exile. These long necks are a symbol of beauty in the tribe. The interesting thing about these neck rings is that they do not actually stretch the neck; instead the rings ush down on the muscles around the collarbone giving the impression of a longer neck. Corsets were first popularized in the mid-16th century. At that time, the garment was used not to minimize the waist but to enhance the bust. The Victorian era brought many changes to corsets, which are still with us today. Modern corsets are shaped in the same way as the 1800s corset. Steel stays were introduced in this area, allowing corsets to reshape the body. Tight lacing was common, further reducing the waist and enhancing the bust and hips. Tight lacing is a way to wear the corset where over a period of months or years a woman can were the corset taking it off only at night to sleep and each day when it is put on again it is tightened a little more than the day before. This is done so that the body holds the shape given when the corset is taken off. Shapely hour glass figures are a seen as a mark of beauty. Throughout history people from all over the world have used various forms of body modification to tell people who they are. Tattoos, Lip plates, Piercings, Brass Neck rings, all say something about the person they are attached to. For centuries tribes have used tattoos to mark tribal leaders and spiritual leaders or to mark when a child has come into puberty and can be counted as an adult. Tribes in Africa use the body as a canvas and mark them with scar designs because a bare unmarked body is seen as an unused surface, while in other cultures an un-scarred unblemished body is seen as a thing of beauty. Brass neck rings are used to create beauty on women in tribes who find that the long, elegant design of a neck should be shown and accentuated. Piercings have always been used for a wide variety of reasons; to mark an age, to decorate a bare chest, or to help improve eyesight and ward off demons. The reasons behind body modification vary, from culture to culture and for each gender. â€Å"These permanent designs-sometimes plain, sometimes elaborate, always personal- have served as amulets, status symbols, declarations of love, signs of religious beliefs, adornments, and even forms of punishment. †(Cate Lineberry, Tattoos -The Ancient and Mysterious History, Para 1 line 3) How to cite The History of Body Modification, Essay examples

AustralianTaxation in FY2016 and FY2017 †

Question: Discuss about the AustralianTaxation in FY2016 and FY2017. Answer: Issue Whether John is a resident of Australia for Australian taxation purpose in FY2016 Whether John is a resident of Australia for Australian taxation purpose in FY2017 Rule There are four test which are applied for the purpose of determining whether a person is resident of Australia for Australian taxation purpose of not. Where any test provides a positive result than the person is considered as an Australian Resident for Taxation purpose. These tests are Ordinary concepts test, 183 days Test, Domicile Test and Superannuation Test The definition of resident is provided under s 6(1) Income Tax Assessment Act 1936 (ITAA). According to the section a person who resides in Australia includes a person who has a domicile in Australia unless it is held by the minister that the person permanent place of abode is not in Australia or the person has been in Australia for a period of more than half a year unless the commissioner holds that the person does not intend to stay in Australia[1]. Ordinary concepts test In the case of Miller v FCT[2] it had been stated by the court that whether a person is a resident or not is analyzed by matter of fact and degree. The meaning of the term reside has not been provided in any legislation and is determined through a dictionary meaning which is to dwell permanently or for a considerable time. Thus as per the test the court takes into consideration the time which the person has spent in Australia, the purpose of the visit, having a residence in Australia, and the persons social ties. As per the test emphasis is put by the commissioner on the intention for stay, location and maintenance of assets, living and social ties. It has been provided by Tax Ruling 98/17 that where an individual resides in Australia as per the dictionary meaning of the words resides the other tests which have been provided through the definition do not require consideration. However where the person is not residing in Australia the consideration of other test has to be done to analyze the residency status of the individual[3]. It has also been provided through the ruling that the length of time or period of physical presence in Australia is not solely decisive while analyzing a person is residing in Australia. However the behavior of an individual with respect to the time spent in Australia may provide a degree of habit, routine or continuity which is consistent with the meaning of the word reside. The commissioners view in relation tolaw is that six months is a considerable time to determine whether a person is a resident of Australia or not for tax purpose. However merely because a person is staying in Australia for a period of 6 months he is not an Australia resident for the purpose of tax as per Tax Ruling 98/17. Under the domicile Test if a person has a permanent place of abode in Australia he is a resident unless the minister has a finding that his permanent place of abode is outside Australia. However it had been ruled in the case of Federal Commissioner of Taxation v Applegate[4] the court held that permanent does not mean forever Under the 183 day test if a person resides in Australia physically, intermittently or continuously for more than half off the income year he is a resident for tax purpose. However where the commissioner is satisfied that the usual place of abode of the individual is outside Australia and there is no intention on the part of the person to take up residence in Australia the person is not a resident for tax purpose[5]. Application Determination of residency for John in FY2016 It has been provided in the scenario that John Came to Australia first on 3rd April 2016. The total period for which he has been in Australia in 2016 includes approximately 2 months in April and May and from June to December 2016. Thus means that he has been in Australia for a period of more than half a year. Thus one of the elements of the ordinary concept test has been satisfied. He has also take a home for residing in Sydney for a six month lease as he liked the place. As per the case of Federal Commissioner of Taxation v Applegate Permanent place of abode does not mean forever. Thus his 6 months lease can be counted as a permanent place of abode in Australia. In addition according to Tax Ruling 98/17 the behavior of an individual with respect to the time spent in Australia may provide a degree of habit, routine or continuity which is consistent with the meaning of the word reside. Thus the continuing nature of John residence in Australia such as extending his course, taking up a part time job and buying a place to stay in Australia makes him a residence as per the resides test or ordinary concept test. Determination of residency for John in FY2017 It has been provided in the scenario that John has also decided to make an application for PhD studies in November which is to be effective from January 2017. This further signifies that he is intending to stay for a longer period in Australia. He already has a place of abode of a permanent nature. It is also provided by the ruling that when behavior is changed by a person and intention to reside is indicated the person is regarded as a resident. In the given situation it is clear that John who had come to Australia on a tourist visa and now holds a student visa for four years there is degree of habit, routine or continuity in his stay and he is also a resident under FY2017 as per the continuity test. As the test of ordinary concept is successfully applied, the application of no other test is required. Conclusions John is a resident of Australia for Tax Purpose for both FY2016 and FY2017. Bibliography Federal Court of Australia in Federal Commissioner of Taxation v Applegate (1978) 9 ATR 899 Income Tax Assessment Act 1936 (Cth) s 6(1) Legal Database (2018) Miller v FCT (1946) 73 CLR 93 Sharkey, Nolan. "Coming to Australia: Cross border and Australian income tax complexities with a focus on dual residence and DTAs and those from China, Singapore and Hong Kong-Part 1."Brief42.10 (2015)

Friday, May 1, 2020

Community College vs Senior College Essay Example For Students

Community College vs Senior College Essay There are many different types of colleges, each different in one-way or another. There are Liberal Arts, Universities, Upper Divisions, Agricultural, Technical and Specialized, Public, Private and Community or Junior colleges. If you were a student looking for a college, which type of college would you attend? Is it better to attend a four-year college right away or a community college? With so many different types of colleges out there, which would be better to attend? Would it matter if a student were ready or not for a four-year college? Yes it would. Did you know that Many young people who do not have the ability or educational preparation to perform well in 4-year colleges are being encouraged to enroll (ed. gov/pubs)! This means that the people around he or she, for example, teachers, parents, counselors, and so on, encourage them. Since the student is not ready for or at college level they become drawn into a hole, one that is almost impossible to escape from. And because of this it is estimate (d) that about half of the entrants each year-over 600,000 students-eventually leave without graduating(ed. gov/pubs). A community college is there to help the student get ready for four-year college as well as providing students with an associates degree. Community colleges are made for two main reasons, one to serve as a bridge from high school to college by providing courses for transfer toward a bachelors degree (B. A. or B. S. And two is to prepare students for the job market by offering entry-level career training as well as courses for adult students who want to upgrade their skills for workforce reentry or advancement. (Collegeboard) A four-year college is the exact same thing as a community college. In a four-year college, you study to earn your Bachelors degree. You are expected to have your assigned work on time and to be in the lecture. Youre responsible for yourself and everything you do. It is a lot bigger than a community college. It offers more majors and research facilities. Class size is often based on institutional size and graduate student may teach classes from the same college or class. Although there are some similarities in what each college offers, there are some differences that make them unique. Many people often do not know the difference between a senior (a four-year) and junior college (two-year) because they are not given the right information. They are not able to make right choices as to what college they want to attend. Many people enter college without a clear idea of what they want to focus on(collegeboard) a community college is there to help you explore different subjects areas before you enter that the field of your choice, as you explore the different areas you save a lot money. The counselors assist the student in every career choice they make, plus if after two years you think you are ready for a senior college, they can transfer your credits earned to the college of your choice. A community college is there if youre not sure about college (collegeboard). A community college is also good to attend if you have been out of school for a long time or if the students GPA are not at the required level for the students chosen college. A senior college is there for the student to advance or to specialize in the field of their choice, it offers more course selections, it is larger so there is more person to person contact, and the student gets to live in a dorm, if they choose. If you are unsure of what you want to do, a community college is a better choice to choose as you explore your options. .u7dc77b658a6025e730b2a706c608e4a0 , .u7dc77b658a6025e730b2a706c608e4a0 .postImageUrl , .u7dc77b658a6025e730b2a706c608e4a0 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u7dc77b658a6025e730b2a706c608e4a0 , .u7dc77b658a6025e730b2a706c608e4a0:hover , .u7dc77b658a6025e730b2a706c608e4a0:visited , .u7dc77b658a6025e730b2a706c608e4a0:active { border:0!important; } .u7dc77b658a6025e730b2a706c608e4a0 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u7dc77b658a6025e730b2a706c608e4a0 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u7dc77b658a6025e730b2a706c608e4a0:active , .u7dc77b658a6025e730b2a706c608e4a0:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u7dc77b658a6025e730b2a706c608e4a0 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u7dc77b658a6025e730b2a706c608e4a0 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u7dc77b658a6025e730b2a706c608e4a0 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u7dc77b658a6025e730b2a706c608e4a0 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u7dc77b658a6025e730b2a706c608e4a0:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u7dc77b658a6025e730b2a706c608e4a0 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u7dc77b658a6025e730b2a706c608e4a0 .u7dc77b658a6025e730b2a706c608e4a0-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u7dc77b658a6025e730b2a706c608e4a0:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Animal Testing Essay IntroductionCommunity colleges cost less than a senior college, this means that you can save money during the first tow year of college as you explore and this money can be saved to help pay for your last two years at a senior college or a university. A senior college or university is there to further advance your degree, to allow the student to specialize in the students selected field. It is not there to help you explore a possible career. We choked at the costs, says Peggy, mother of a college junior and high school senior with annual costs averaging nearly $20,000 and a four-year public school adding up to about $4000. Teenagertoday). But to most families, the cost for college is not the major problem. It is whether or not the college has the students chosen major. On average, annual tuition at public senior college annual tuition costs $3,819 ($80-120/credit), board costs $ 5,564, books cost $750/ year, student fees $80, application fee $50, and cost of attendance $11,550-13,000/year. On average at a community college annual tuition costs $ 1,8000 ($43/credit), board costs $5,021-5,286, books costs $750/year, application fees $0-$20, student fees $1. /credit (max=$18/term), transportation costs $1,500, and attendance costs $ 9,000-$10,5000/year. The grand total of a four-year public college is $24,729 and the grand total for a community college is $19,874 (the totals are per year). If a student were to attend a four-year college for two years it would cost $49,458 and if a student were to attend a community college for two years it would cost $39,748. The student at the community college would sav e $4,855 each year. (Crookcountry. k12. or. us) A four-year college is not flexible like a community college. A four-year college course schedule are geared primarily toward full-time, traditional students who take classes during the day. (collegeboard). A community college is there to help the student out with their life and its choices. Course schedules are developed with attention to the variable needs of both part-time and full-time students, so classes are usually offered throughout the day and evening, and sometimes on weekends. (Collegeboard) Deciding which college to attend is a big step in life, most people are not prepared for it. They go to college with no idea of what to expect or why they are there. If the student feels unsure of what to expect or that he or she are not ready, they can go to a community college. At a community college, the student is prepared to attend a four-year college. While there, the student is able to save money and is allowed to mature and to grow use to idea of being at a college. A four-year college is there for the student to further advance in the their career, it allows the student to earn a degree in the field of his or her choice.